Test yourself on honey bees, Mastermind style

For those of you who have never seen it, Mastermind is a British TV show in which four contestants are tested on both their general knowledge and a chosen specialist subject. Thanks to Di Drinkwater for her post ‘Bees on Mastermind‘, which alerted me to the recent appearance of beekeeper Gill Taylor on the show, with the specialist subject of ‘The honey bee and beekeeping’. Gill is based in Airedale, West Yorkshire, and manages her local association’s website: airedalebka.org.uk. Viewers in the UK can catch the episode on iPlayer during the next couple of weeks.


Here’s the questions asked – answers further down…

1. The cells of the bees’  honey comb are constructed in which distinctive geometric shape?

2. What term derived from the latin for ‘little basket’ is used for the haired structure on the hind leg of a honey bee carrying pollen?

3. What astrological name is widely given to the shifting swarm-like formations of male bees in flight as they pursue the honey bee queen?

4. What item of beekeeping equipment is used to pursue the bees in a hive and typically incorporates a fire box and bellows?

5. What name is generally given to the crescent shaped dance performed by worker bees during foraging that represents an intermediate phase between the round dance and the waggle dance?

6. To what genus does the honey bee belong that includes a widely investigated species called Mellifera?

7. For what purpose does a beekeeper use a baldock or crown of thorns cage?

8. What is the common name of the British climbing plant Hedera helix, which provides the honey bee with a nectar source late in the year?

9. What is the name of the protein that consists of 26 amino acids and is the principal constituent of the honey bee’s venom?

10. What is the common name of the disease caused by the fungus Ascophaera apis, that results in a bee larva being transformed into a mummy of fungal spores?

11. Which deadly parasitic mite of honey bees now endemic in the UK includes the common Destructor species?

12. The honey bee Apis mellifera ligustica resident in the United Kingdom originates in which European country?

13. In the early 1850s which American clergyman and beekeeper identified the bee space in a hive, which enabled him to develop removable frame beekeeping?

14 The black honey bee Apis mellifera mellifera has been legally protected on the Hebridean island of Oronsay and which neighbouring island?

15. What sticky substance – also called bee glue or bee gum – is collected by bees from tree or plant resins and used for constructing and sealing their hives?

16. What name shared with the gland in the worker bees’ abdomen is given to the pheromone that includes nerol and geraniol, used for orientation, marking and guidance?


  1. Hexagonal
  2. Corbicula
  3. Comet
  4. Smoker
  5. Gill passed – the answer is Sickle dance
  6. Apis
  7. To capture the queen
  8. Ivy
  9. Gill passed – the answer is Melittin
  10. Gill answered Sacbrood – the answer is Chalkbrood
  11. Varroa
  12. Italy
  13. Langstroth
  14. Gill passed – the answer is Colonsay
  15. Propolis
  16. Nasonov

How many did you get right? When put on the spot it’s surprisingly hard to speedily recall answers – even to a subject you know well – so I think Gill did brilliantly to get her score of 12. She looked so calm and composed too! I can imagine her steadily at work amongst her bees, unruffled by any angry workers pinging off her veil.

Who won the show? Can mere mortals beat a beekeeper? You’ll have to watch it and find out.

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What’s been flowering: July

Writing is difficult at the moment. It’s rare that I get the chance to sit down and type without Tommy’s eyes popping open and requiring attention. But here are a few photos from my walks round the local parks and Kew Gardens.

Red clover 

An important plant for bees, particularly bumblebees. Clover florets (florets are the individual flowers that make up the flower head) drop once pollinated so that bees know not to bother visiting them. When red clover first flowers it has too deep a flower for a honey bee to reach the nectar, but if the clover is cut and then grows back, the flowers are shorter and can be accessed by honey bees.

Red clover

White clover 

The legume family, including clovers, vetches and trefoils, have special bacteria in their root nodules. These bacteria are able to turn nitrogen from the air into nitrates that enable the plants to manufacture protein for growth – in other words, they make their own fertilizer. This means they can afford to put more protein into their pollen, making it especially nutritious to bees.

White clover nectar is also very important for bees. According to an information board I saw recently at Kew Gardens, white clover contributes more nectar than any other plant species in the UK. Elizabeth Gowing describes clover honey in her ‘Little Book of Honey‘ as “sweet and light, with a citrus tang which changes to a sourish aftertaste that stops it being sickly to eat”.

White clover


When I think of July flowers, I think of yellows and purples. Bright yellow ragwort flowers grow alongside members of the thistle family in all the wilder parts of my local park. They’re tough and can grow on waste land, road sides, rough grassy areas etc. The plants are an important food source for orange & black striped Cinnabar moth caterpillars. Ragwort contains toxic alkaloid substances, which the caterpillars cleverly absorb and assimilate, to become unpalatable to predators.

Celia Davis in The Honey Bee Around & About (2007) describes ragwort as being “very attractive to bees… likely to produce quantities of extractable honey which smells horrible when it is fresh. If it is allowed to stand and granulate, the flavour improves and some beekeepers use it to blend with other, less flavoursome honeys.”

Clive de Bruyn is also positive about ragwort honey, commenting in his classic book Practical beekeeping (1997) “The honey is a deep yellow with a strong flavour thought by some to be obnoxious. I personally find that it adds a bit of interest.” Has anyone reading tried it?

Hoverfly on ragwort

Some more yellow flowers below – a sunflower, the one with pink petals I think is a species of echinacea and I’m not sure what the flower with a bumble bee in the middle is called – any ideas?

Presumably it is the sunflower nectar the bees are after, as a number of experts I’ve heard speak have said that sunflower pollen contains a particularly poor percentage of crude protein – only around 13% compared to 22-24% for an average pollen.

Thistles, teasels and knapweeds

I find the different members of the thistle and teasel family hard to tell apart. They come in various shades of purple and levels of prickliness! Below are photos of a bumblebee on what I think is common teasel and a honey bee on what I think is a species of thistle. Teasel seeds are an important winter food for some birds, such as goldfinches. Interestingly there is some evidence that teasels may be partially carnivorous and able to absorb nutrients from dead insects in rainwater which gathers in a cup-like receptacle formed by leaves on their stem – see ‘Carnivory in the Teasel Dipsacus fullonum — The Effect of Experimental Feeding on Growth and Seed Set‘.

The pics below were taken by Drew on a better quality camera, as you can tell. I’m not quite sure what purple flowers these are, so if you do know please leave a comment!

Some more purple flowers – verbena, cornflower and globe thistle.

Himalayan balsam

Recognise this? It grows in watery areas, so you can see it along the edge of canals and rivers. An invasive weed, but useful for beekeepers. It leaves a light grey pollen stripe on the middle of a honey bee’s back, the part she can’t quite reach to clean.

Himalayan balsam

Blackberry bramble

Over now in London, but the flowers continued during early July. We have blackberries available to pick already. It grows everywhere of course so is very useful for our bees. Did you know that there is a special word for the scientific study of brambles – batology?

Bumble bee on bramble

Homo sapiens

A young and sprightly example of the human genus. Not known to attract bees. Does gain attention from elderly ladies on the bus.

Thomas Scott yawning

Thomas Scott

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A Rose Lemonade restaurant for bees

As part of Pollinator Awareness Week (13th-19th July), Bees’ Needs week has running this week on Twitter – check out #BeesNeeds to see lots of fascinating tweets on how to help bees by charities, businesses and bee experts. You don’t need a Twitter account to read them.

You may well have already seen this story on Emma’s Miss Apis Mellifera blog, but if not check out this charming bee hotel created by Yorkshire family tea business Taylors of Harrogate. The rooms provide sweet sustenance for hungry bee visitors and are themed by the company’s tea flavours, such as sour cherry and spiced apple. You can get a free taster pack of their fruit & herbal teas at bees.taylorstea.co.uk

Taylors of Harrogate bee hotel

© Licensed to simonjacobs.com. 20.06.16 London, UK.A general view of a Taylor’s of Harrogate specially commissioned bee hotel on Hampstead Heath.FREE PRESS, EDITORIAL AND PR USAGE.Photo credit: Simon Jacobs

Here’s a short video of bumblebees enjoying the hotel on You Tube: Taylors of Harrogate Bee Hotel.

Taylors say:

“Research by the University of Bristol has found that rural bees are in the decline as opposed to city bees, and as a solution, Taylors of Harrogate has created a luxury bee hotel to support the work of urban busy-bees! By creating the bee hotel Taylors of Harrogate is also thanking the bees for the flavour, as without bees there would be no flavour in our teas! The miniature hotel is an intricately designed, with luxury interior features such as plates filled with pollen to feast on in the Rose Lemonade restaurant, and a sugar water bath in the Sweet Rhubarb suite.”

The Taylors of Harrogate bee hotel is an intricately designed miniature hotel, with luxury interior features such as plates filled with pollen to feast on in the Rose Lemonade restaurant, and a sugar water bath in the Sweet Rhubarb suite.

The hotel itself is made from balsa wood and includes traditional hollow tubes in the bedrooms, which is a popular nesting choice for solitary bees. Other key features, such as sugar water baths and ultraviolet patterns, have been included based on scientific research that suggests that bees are attracted to these, and will therefore be enticed to enter the bee hotel to get some much needed rest and relaxation.

Kate Halloran from Taylors of Harrogate, adds: “Bees are so important in helping to provide great flavour, but less attention has been paid to show how urban areas can be made more pollinator-friendly. The aim of the bee hotel is to not only educate and entertain, but to also inspire action. From the Peppermint Leaf Gym for a complete wing work out, through to the luxury Sweet Rhubarb Suite with its decadent rhubarb sugar water bath and UV disco, their every need will be taken care of.

Kate Hallaran and bee hotel

© Licensed to simonjacobs.com. 20.06.16 London, UK.Kate Hallaran from Taylor’s of Harrogate with a specially commissioned Bee HotelFREE PRESS, EDITORIAL AND PR USAGE.Photo credit: Simon Jacobs

“Many people may be unaware that some of our favourite fruits, including apple and cherries all depend on insect pollinators, including bees. We want to raise awareness of this issue and encourage everyone to get more deeply involved and help create a network of real bee hotels, starting in their own back gardens.”

City vs rural bees

Taylors of Harrogate commissioned a poll to measure public perceptions of bee populations in the UK and found that 75 per cent of surveyed Brits would expect to see more bees in rural areas – but according to experts, it is now more common to find a wider variety of bees thriving in UK cities.

Research led by the University of Bristol has found that when comparing the number of bee species living in urban and rural areas, there were on average 9.3 species (per km2) in urban areas, compared to only 7.3 species (per km2) in farmlands. [This is probably due to monocrops in rural areas, which leave little for bees to feed on once they have finished flowering. In contrast urban areas tend to have a greater variety of flowering plants.]

Dr Katherine Baldock from the University of Bristol comments: “Bees need two things; food and a suitable nesting site. Both of these can be found in UK cities, although our research shows that urban areas can host high numbers of bees, as well as many different species, there are still many ways we can improve our towns and cities for bees, other pollinators and wildlife in general. Bee-friendly flowers in gardens and public places provide crucial pollen and nectar sources and bee hotels provide important nesting sites.”

How urban (and rural!) gardeners can help

Helen Bostock, Senior Horticultural Advisor at the Royal Horticultural Society, has written some advice on planting for pollinators: RHS National Pollinator Awareness Week. Her suggestions include:

  • Keep an eye for plants and seed mixes bearing the RHS Perfect for Pollinator bee logo or advertised as good for pollinators.
  •  See what works well in your garden and neighbouring gardens – if you spot a plant that’s covered in bees, plant more of it! The RHS Perfect for Pollinators lists are a good starting point but don’t be afraid to try out new things.
  • Strive to have something in flower in your garden every month of the year. British wildflowers tend to peak in early summer so add some late flowering plants such as Japanese anemones, asters, chrysanthemums and single-flowered dahlias.
  •  Get involved with a local beekeeping society. Even if you’re not inclined to keep honey bees yourself, you can support beekeepers in your neighbourhood by stocking your garden with nectar and pollen rich flowers.
  • Put up ‘bee hotels’. These work a treat for providing nesting sites for some of our wild, solitary bees such as Red Mason Bee.
  • Don’t disturb bumblebee nests or the nests of ground nesting bees.

To find out more about opening your very own luxury bee hotel visit bees.taylorstea.co.uk.

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The Hive at Kew

Try to imagine yourself inside a bee colony. Close your eyes so that it’s dark. Imagine yourself to be one of many thousands now, crawling amongst the comforting scent and hum of your sisters. You can feel their vibrations speaking to you, shaking out many messages. The wax combs carry throbbing tales of flowers for the taking, of your queen, of work to be done. You touch a sister with your antennae and she stops to give you sweet nectar; you pick up a heady regal waft as she does so, and you know your queen is amongst you.

Communication – vibrations – messages – the busy world inside a hive. The magnificently bearded artist Wolfgang Buttress has tried to recreate some of this experience for visitors in his new artwork at Kew Gardens, ‘The Hive‘. Ealing beekeepers have even had some involvement in this as one of our members, Llyr Jones (Jonesy) looks after the bees at Kew. Jonesy also keeps bees on the rooftop of the John Lewis HQ – you can read about this on the ‘Meet our honey bees‘ section of their website.

The Hive long shot

The Hive

The Kew website explains how The Hive works:

“The installation is made from thousands of pieces of aluminium which create a lattice effect and is fitted with hundreds of LED lights that glow and fade as a unique soundtrack hums and buzzes around you.

These multi-sensory elements of the Hive are in fact responding to the real-time activity of bees in a beehive behind the scenes at Kew. The sound and light intensity within the space changes as the energy levels in the real beehive surge, giving visitors an insight into life inside a bee colony.

With a wildflower meadow leading the way to The Hive, it will be a truly immersive, multi-sensory experience taking visitors on a journey, exploring the vital role of bees and other pollinators in feeding the planet.”

The activity levels of the bees are transmitted through ‘accelerometers’, vibration sensors which have been placed in a hive at Kew to measure the activity of the colony. The accelerometers pick up the bees’ vibrations and send them in real-time to the Hive installation. The changing vibrational signals then influence both the soundtrack and the lighting effects, so that the 1,000 LED lights which line the interior of the Hive become a visual representation of the bee colony’s activity.

I visited this week and took a few photos. Buggies are not allowed in the Hive, so bear in mind that the photos were taken one handed whilst holding a wriggling baby. He was very awake and fairly grumpy so my visit was not as long as I would have liked!

The Hive meadow

Visitors walk up to the Hive through a one-acre wildflower meadow specially planted with 34 native species which appeal to bees. Ironically I saw bees everywhere elsewhere in the gardens but not in the meadow. Awkward customers.

The Hive below

First you walk beneath the structure and can look up into it. For this reason Jonesy gave me the useful tip not to wear a skirt! A member of staff was enthusiastically giving short talks about bees and how the installation works. There are also bone conductor booths. These were very popular – you place a wooden stick in your mouth and can then feel four different examples of vibrations made by honey bees (including queen piping and the waggle dance) travelling through the booths to your skull. As I was holding Tommy, unfortunately I couldn’t try these out.

White clover nectar information

You then walk up a path through the meadow into the installation. There are signs like the one above to read on the way. I found it interesting that white clover is so important for UK bees.

The Hive roof

Once inside the main structure above, there is a lovely gentle throbbing humming noise surrounding you. Meanwhile the LED lights perched on the walls glow on and off in ever-changing patterns. I liked to imagine that they represented individual bees touching or sharing nectar with each other. The ebbs and flows of the music are quite soothing and even Tommy seemed to enjoy it and calm down a little. Of course it gets quite crowded up there, but perhaps that helps recreate the intense atmosphere of a busy bee colony!

The Hive floor

The Hive floor

The Hive lights

LED lights

Hives at Kew

I discovered the bees themselves later, in a much quieter part of the gardens. Smaller bumblebee boxes have been set up (seen to the right of the photo) as well as the honey bee hives. I wonder if the bumbles have been successfully persuaded to stay in them, as they are fussy about using man-made homes!

There are many interesting facts to read about bees scattered amongst the gardens. Wolfgang Buttress and Kew have really put a lot of effort into raising people’s awareness of our lovely pollinators.

Scientists are discovering new information about honey bee communication all the time and it is clear that their use of vibrations to communicate goes well beyond the waggle dance. Wolfgang Buttress was inspired by the work of Dr Martin Bencsik, whose research team at Nottingham Trent University has pioneered using accelerometers within hives to detect and translate the vibrations made by the bees. For instance, the team has detected a a specific range and amplitude of vibrations used by bees when planning a swarm, up to two weeks before swarming occurs.

By the way, according to Nottingham Trent uni’s website Dr Bencsik currently works within an EU-funded consortium which includes research institutions, beekeeping associations and businesses. I hope his work will continue to be funded once we leave the EU.

More about The Hive:

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Leaving the EU: what does it mean for British bees and beekeepers?

It was a shock to find out yesterday that Britain had voted to leave the EU. Until the first poll results started coming in I had hoped that, as with the Scottish referendum, the remainers would win out in the end. But then I live in London and we tend to vote differently to the rest of England.

While most of my friends were left as gloomy, worried and angry as I was by the result, reactions were more mixed on the British Beekeepers Association (BBKA) Facebook group. Beekeepers involved in bee research or working for the National Bee Unit (NBU) are concerned. The NBU currently receives half a million in funding annually from the EU for the UK apiculture program – see the funding tables for EU member states in 2014-16. This funding helps pay for our excellent bee inspectors, who carry out apiary inspections, provide technical assistance to beekeepers and work to prevent bee pests and diseases spreading.

FERA NBU Beesuit

A NBU inspector’s bee suit. Courtesy The Food and Environment Research Agency (Fera), Crown Copyright

Those who voted to leave are of course optimistic about how the result will affect beekeepers. They argue that there will now be more money to go round and that now the government has the freedom to ban imports of bees, which could help with disease control and promote local gene pools. My answer to that would be that I can’t see a Conservative government – or any government – ploughing funds into supporting beekeepers or prioritising banning bee imports. We’ll be lucky if they don’t spend the extra cash on privatising national forests, eliminating the green belt and building some beautiful duck houses.

A NBU training session for London beekeepers

A NBU training session for London beekeepers

Some have lovely ideas that BBKA members should club together and fund the NBU shortfall in funding. I’m sure some of us wouldn’t mind chipping in, but bear in mind that even putting up subscription fees by a pound annually causes much debate at the BBKA Annual Delegates Meetings. Us beekeepers are known for being stingy buggers money savvy. If the bee inspectors could be persuaded to take payment in honey and home brewed mead that might do it.

Here are a couple of posts written before the referendum on how the EU supports environmental policies:

  • The environmental argument for the UK remaining in the European Union – by Jeff Ollerton, Professor of Biodiversity in the Department of Environmental and Geographical Sciences at the University of Northampton. One of those “experts” the leave campaign scoffed at. He makes the point that environmental issues cross borders,  so working together in coordination with other countries is beneficial for wildlife.

None of us knows for sure what is coming next, but whatever happens I hope British beekeepers will fight together to protect services for beekeepers and flowers for bees.

Caroline Washington, a former NBU bee inspector

Caroline Washington, a former NBU bee inspector

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What’s flowering now: early June

The flowers have moved on since my last post in May. Some are still with us – white dead-nettle, gorse, dandelions, green alkanet; while others, like horse chestnut and daffodils, have faded. London bees now have a new mix of wild and garden flowers to choose from. Here’s what I’ve been finding them on in local parks.

Two pink comfrey bushes in Elthorne park rough were humming with buff-tailed bumblebees. There are also white varieties of comfrey. It is listed in Prof. Dave Goulson’s list of ‘The best garden flowers for bees‘ – he says it has a “Very long flowering period, from May to August, and one of the very best plants for bees. Visited by long and short-tongued species, the latter often robbing from holes bitten in the tops of the flowers.”

You can see some lovely photos of a male early bumblebee (Bombus pratorum) stealing from comfrey on a post by TrogTrogBlog: Nectar robbers. Honey bees also benefit from the holes bitten by short-tongued bumblebees.

In the fields of Elthorne rough, masses of graceful cow parsley and hogweed grow tall. A few honey bees and bumbles can be found on their delicate little white flowers, along with shiny metallic green beetles. I recommend the post ‘Hogweed days‘ on the Everyday Nature Trails blog to find out more about the pollinators that visit hogweed.

Honey bee on cow parsley

Honey bee – I think on hogweed

I was particularly pleased to find an Ashy-Mining bee, with its pretty grey and black stripes. Judging by the BWARS description, this is a female, which have “two broad ashy- grey hairbands across the thorax.” 

Ashy mining bee on cow parsley

Ashy mining bee on cow parsley

Along the edges of the paths are blackberry brambles, which are popular with both bumbles and honey bees. In his Guide to Bees & Honey, (2010, p.221) Ted Hooper says blackberry is “Well worked by bees even at fairly low temperatures, supplying both nectar and pollen in quantity. Honey of good flavour, medium amber, tending to granulate with a care-grained texture. Pollen load pale brownish grey.

In the fancier, more formal Lammas park, I found carder, bumble and honey bees on these purple irises and a orange balled flower. Not knowing what the orange balls were, I looked online to find that the plant is called… the orange ball tree (Buddleja globosa). It originally comes from south America.

And in the kitchen gardens of Walpole park are chives, which were being visited by this Red-tailed Bumblebee (Bombus lapidaries). The pollen co-ordinates well with its bottom!

Red tailed bumblebee on chive

Red tailed bumblebee on chive

Coming soon: white clover, thistles, knapweed, rosebay willow herb, himalayan balsam and ragwort.

And below is an advert for the powers of royal jelly – look how chubby those cheeks are now🙂


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What’s flowering now: early May

Ealing is particularly beautiful in April and May. Many of the roads and parks near me are lined with white and pink blossom trees. On a sunny day you can stand under them and hear the hum of bees high above, and spot dark shapes flitting between the flowers. As the petals fall they become colourful confetti for the pavement, swirling gently in the wind.


EDIT: Thanks to Honeymedic for his comment about the tree above – “It may be another cultivar but your first tree looks very like Eucryphia Nymansensis which does not generally flower until August but then the bees in my garden go mad on it. In its native Chile, Euchryphia Cordifolia is the source of the wonderful healing honey ULMO.”

Ealing also has many horse chestnut trees, which are now covered with white candles of flowers. These are popular with honey bees.

horse chestnuts

Though from a distance horse chestnut flowers appear white, they have a touch of yellow within when their flowers are un-pollinated and excreting nectar. After a horse chestnut flower has been pollinated, the yellow blotch turns a red/pink magenta to let pollinators know. Additionally after pollination the flower has a change in scent that bees pick up, so that they avoid wasting their time visiting that flower. Have a look next time you’re under a horse chestnut.

hairy footed bee on gorse

Me and Tom have been going for walks together and doing some bee spotting. Well, I walk and Tom gets pushed. We have four parks in walking distance and pretty gardens to walk past too. There are still a few front gardens which haven’t been turned into car parks. Can you see the bee above on gorse? Sorry for the bad photo but I have been using my phone as it’s light and I have so much baby stuff to carry.

hairy footed bee on gorse

I believe this gorse visitor is the beautifully named Hairy-Footed Flower Bee. It likes nesting in old walls and its favourite flower is lungwort (pulmonaria).

Bumble on pink flower

This might be an Early bumblebee (Bombus pratorum)? If anyone knows what the pink flower is, please let me know.

EDIT: Thanks to Lucy Garden, Julie, Amelia, Mark and WesternWilson for commenting that the pink flower may be a geranium. Amelia added “There are a lot of different perennial geraniums and I find them very useful in the garden as some are very tough and can smother anything in rough sites yet the bumble bees love them.”

Bumble on pink flower

I have been disappointed as I’ve not been seeing as many bumbles as I’d expect at this time of year. Was the mostly mild winter bad for them? I’ve been walking past sunny banks of green alkanet (evergreen bugloss) and not seeing a single bee.

Green alkanet (evergreen bugloss)

Green alkanet (evergreen bugloss)

honey bee on green alkanet

I did see a few honey bees on the green alkanet but not many. Perhaps they are distracted by the magnificent horse chestnuts.

Carder bee white nettle

This is a common carder bee on white dead-nettle. Nettles are such great plants for wildlife and I find them pretty too.

white dead-nettle

Tulip and forget-me-nots

People go crazy for big showy flowers like tulips, but arguably the delicate forget-me-nots behind are just as beautiful. A bee would prefer the forget-me-nots.


Daffodils are still around, but they’re not a great flower for honey bees. If you look at p.26 of the BBKA News April 2011 edition you will see a couple of letters about daffodils. Daffs contain toxic chemicals (known as alkaloids) that include lycorine. The wild daffodil is pollinated principally by bumblebees — Bombus terrestris, B. muscorum, B. hortorum, B. lapidarius — and Anthophora plumipes (hairy footed flower bee). However honey bees are rarely seen on daffodils, and Adrian Davis from Canterbury BKA suggests that this is because they store food for longer than bumbles. Possibly by not collecting daffodil pollen (or nectar) they avoid the build up of lycorine in the hive.


Anyone know what this unusual purple flower is?

EDIT: Thanks to Lucy Garden and Julie for commenting that the purple flower is an aquilegia aka columbine.

Tom one month old

Finally, not a flower but Tom a week ago.

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